Monday, November 24, 2014

Human Communication- Chapter 11,12 and 13

Small groups

There are 12 roles in a group that is involved in solving a specific task. They are:
  1. Initiator
  2. Information seeker
  3. Opinion seeker
  4. Information giver
  5. Elaborator 
  6. Coordinator
  7. Orienter
  8. Evaluator
  9. Energizer
  10. Procedural technician
  11. Recorder

But sometimes, especially when there is conflict, some individuals within the group would have to take a role as maintenance. This role is important to build or improve relationship within the the group. The roles within maintenance are:
  1. Encourager
  2. Harmonizer
  3. Compromiser
  4.  Gatekeeper
  5. Standard setter
  6. Observer
  7. Follower

There are also individual roles within a group. Although it is sometimes prominent, it is usually not good for the group as it will leave the group members to be uncooperative. Those roles are:
  1.  Aggressor
  2. Blocker
  3. Recognition seeker
  4. Self-confessor
  5. Playboy/playgirl
  6. Dominator
  7. Help seeker
  8. Special interest pleader


Human Communication- Chapter 10: Small groups

The creation of groups are common in our lives. But still, it is usually formed out of a common purpose, interdependence, organization of rules, and self-perception as a group.

An effective teams usually will contain these traits:
  1. Specific purpose
  2. Clearly defined roles
  3. Goal directed
  4. Content focused
As conversation, small groups also follows the same stages
  1. Opening
  2. Feed-forward
  3. Business
  4. Feedback
  5.  Closing
Formats of small groups will include:
  1. Round table
  2. Panel
  3. Symposium
  4. Symposium-forum
In a group, each individuals would bring different roles into the group. Such roles are:
  1. Legitimate power: by rules- appointed leader
  2. Referent power: by good traits
  3. Reward power: by positive reinforcement
  4. Coercive power: negative reinforcement
  5. Expert power: knowledgeable in a field
  6. Information power: full of information to be informed to others

Sunday, November 23, 2014

Human Communication- Chapter 9: Friends, Lovers and Families


Friendship is an interpersonal relationship. For it to occur, it must be mutually productive. It is also characterized by emotional support, trust, and sharing interest. There are three types of friendships:
  1. Reciprocity (close friends)
  2. Receptivity (students-lecturer)
  3. Association (neighbors)
We seek friendship because of these reasons:
  1. Utility purpose (help to achieve goals)
  2. Affirmation (help to recognize potential)
  3. Ego support (support and encouragement)
  4. Stimulation (new ideas)
  5. Security (prevent to get hurt)
There is also stages of friendship:
  1. Initial contact
  2. Casual
  3. Intimate
Friendship is usually affected by three factors
  1. Culture (Some culture prefer to have less friends so that career isn't affected)
  2. Gender differences (men would self-disclose less than women)
  3. Technology (having many friends in social media isn't really meaningful)
Romantic relationship 

There are six types of love:
  1. Eros: Erotic, lust and desire
  2. Ludus: Fun and excitement
  3. Storge: Peaceful and slow
  4. Pragma: Practical and traditional
  5. Mania: Extremist of opposites
  6. Agape: Unconditional love
Various cultures have various interpretation of love. In United States, couples are more explicit in showing their love in public but in eastern countries, it's the otherwise. For males, usually the type of love is eros or ludus whereas for women, it's pragma. But it's not definitive.


Each family would usually have shared common traits such as:
  1. Defined roles
  2. Recognition of responsibilities
  3. Shared history and future
  4. Shared living space
There are three types of family:
  1. Traditional (conventional form of family)
  2. Independent (individuality as the main theme)
  3. Separate (stay together for common benefit)
Families usually adhere to these principles of communication:
  1. Equality (equal respect and understanding
  2. Balanced split (equal responsibility)
  3. Monopoly (only one doing all the works)
  4. Unbalanced split (one person is the authority)

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Human communication- Chapter 7 & 8: Interpersonal communication

Interpersonal communication in this context can be divided into two part:
  1. Conversation
  2. Relationship
 But basically, interpersonal communication can be defined simply as a communication between sender and receiver (more than 1 person is involved).


There is a process for a conversation to occur:
  1. Opening
  2. Feedforwarding
  3. Business
  4. Feedback
  5. Closing
There is also principles of conversation:
  1. Turn-taking
  2. Dialogue
  3. Immediacy
Everyday conversation also includes:
  1.  Small talk
  2. Excuses and apologies
  3. Complimenting
  4. Advising

In conclusion, interpersonal communication is laid upon the foundation of conversation and also relationship among the people. Interpersonal communication is also crucial to our lives since we are social being.

Human communication- Chapter 6: Non-verbal communication

Non-verbal communication are any messages that are sent to other people without using spoken words. Examples are body gestures, paralanguage, facial expression and so on.

Non-verbal communication functions as a way to
  1. Integrate nonverbal and verbal messages
  2. Forming and managing impressions
  3. Defining relationships
  4. Structuring conversation
  5. Influencing and deceiving
  6. Expressing emotions.
There are 10 ways in which nonverbal messages can be channeled. They include:

  1.  Smell
  2. Facial
  3. Silence
  4. Eye
  5. Chronemics
  6. paralanguage
  7. Touch
  8. Artifactual communication
  9. Spatial message
  10.  Body message
For cultural aspect of nonverbal communication, we can see that different cultures have different meaning that a specific nonverbal message portrayal is being conveyed.  For example, thumbs up brings an "okay" meaning for most but for certain cultures, it is considered very rude. So in conclusion, nonverbal message plays a significant role in communication but one has to be sensitive to cultural factor because the meaning of a certain nonverbal message might differ to another culture.

Sunday, September 28, 2014

Human Communication- Chapter 4: The Self

For chapter 4, we learn about the self. What is the self?

The self can be defined as the way in which communication and interpretation of messages takes place within an individual. In my understanding, it is a form of intrapersonal communication because it takes place within an individual.

There are 4 important subtopics within this chapter. They are:

  1. Self concept- It is about how you think and feel about yourself
  2. Self awareness- About discovering personal development and understanding
  3. Self esteem- Confidence or trust of yourself
  4. Self disclosure- Telling others about your personal details
I've been reminded by the lecturer that self concept and self awareness are always been confused by students. These two are different because self concept is about how you think and feel about yourself whereas self awareness is about discovering your potential. Besides, there's also Johari's Window under the self awareness subtopic that we must emphasize:

Johari's Window

Thursday, September 11, 2014

Human communication- Chapter 3: Listening

For this chapter, we learnt about listening. There are many definition for listening but generally it can be defined as a specialized process where you receive auditory signals.

There are five stages of listening. They are:
  1. Receiving
  2. Understanding
  3. Remembering
  4. Evaluating
  5. Responding
Listening is often difficult because of cultural barrier. Why is this so? Because there exist differences in the communication systems between speaker and listener. Therefore, speaker and listener from different culture might face difficulties in listening.

Even though there are difficulties for listening to occur, there are ways to overcome it in order to achieve effective listening. They are:
  1. Participatory and passive listening
  2. Emphatic and objective listening
  3. Nonjudgemental and critical thinking
  4. Surface and depth listening
From this chapter, I learnt that listening is totally different from hearing. This is because listening requires you to understand the message given by the speaker besides giving response to him or her.
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